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  • Industrial :
    If you are concerned about chemical agents being present when working at home, then it is always best to find information on the packaging of any product that should state the chemical agent's nature (poisonous or caustic or other) and what type of protection is required if appropriate.
    High concentrations of chemicals can be present when carrying out the following activities:
    • Liquid cleaning around the home
    • Paintwork
    • Car work
    • Photocopying
    • Garden spraying
    • Nail polish removal
    Particulates are present in the air no matter what you do. They tend to increase in concentration if work is carried out in a closed environment. The breathing rate is also increased along with most physical activities, so it is important to wear some level of protection to maintain a good sense of well being.

    High concentrations of particulates can be present when carrying out the following activities:

    • Hoovering
    • Dusting
    • Baking
    • Garden spraying
    • Smoking
    • DIY
    High levels of particulates can be found in the following residential environments:
    • Workshop
    • Garden
    • Kitchen
    • Attic
    If you are in doubt as to the nature of chemical agent and feel the need to wear a mask, then it would be sensible to acquire a product with a sub-micron particulate layer and a DACC™ layer, like the Aero mask with chemical filter, or the Techno mask.

    The following list of agents have been tested using DACC™:

    KEY TO FILTRATION PROPERTIES
    E = EXCELLENT
    G = GOOD
    M = MODERATE
    P = POOR

    • Cigarette smoke - M
    • Camphor - E
    • Degreasing solvents - E
    • Deodorisers - E
    • Detergents - E
    • Perfumes - M
    • Poultry odours - E
    • Rancid oils & fats - E
    • Resins - E
    • Rubber - E
    • Stale odours - E
    • Tar odours - E
    • Turpentine - E
    • Wood alcohol - E
    • Nitrogen - P
    The list is not exhaustive and other chemicals may well be absorbed by DACC™ but have yet to tested.

    The following text is from George Kosch:

    Why should we be concerned with Indoor Pollution?

    Because we spend 90% of our time indoors. Also a recent EPA report ranked indoor pollution at the top of the list of environmental risks Americans face.

    What is Indoor Air Pollution?

    Smoke, odors, mildew, mold and dust are some of the indoor pollutants that are easy to see and smell. Others, like gases, certain chemicals, bacteria, pollen and static electricity are harder to detect. Formaldehyde is one example of an invisible pollutant. It enters the air from synthetic materials such as carpeting, upholstery and wall paneling.

    The average home collects 40 pounds of dust a year, which plays host to 15 species of mites that live in beds, pillows, stuffed furniture, etc. These almost invisible critters live about 45 days, but 42,000 of them can survive in one ounce of mattress dust. Dust mites alone send asthmatics to hospital rooms more than 200,000 times a year with allergic reactions to their sheddings, according to researchers at the University of Virginia.

    Why is it such a problem?

    During the energy crisis we began to insulate and seal our buildings more thoroughly. This saved energy, but caused pollutants to be trapped indoors. We get very little fresh air into these structures. We keep concentrating the pollutants in our sealed up homes and offices. The variety of chemicals used in our modern day building materials is a big offender. We also pollute indoor air with toxins in household products and furnishings.

    How serious is this?

    Indoor air pollution can be far worse than outdoor pollutants. EPA's study found some chemicals 100 times higher than outdoor levels.

    What medical problem can it cause?

    Breathing problems are most common. Some people report dizziness, headaches, burning eyes, aching throats or loss of energy-symptoms often mistaken for colds or viruses, but disappear when victims leave the building. Allergies, depression and chronic illness may also be a result.

    Who's most vulnerable?

    Generally children and the elderly - and anyone occupying a newly constructed home, office or building.

    What can be done about it?

    It's always wise to eliminate the cause of the problem, by using nontoxic cleaning products, furnishings and building materials. Nontoxic paints and sealant will seal in toxic vapors from walls, floors, particle board and linoleum. Make sure you have adequate ventilation. Spray and wick products, basically perfumes, are pollutants themselves. Most air filters are only partially effective.

    What is Ozone?

    Ozone, a three atom form of activated oxygen, is a normal trace element in the earth's atmosphere. Because gaseous ozone is highly reactive, it readily oxidizes organic matter and kills bacteria and molds.

    How is Ozone produced?

    Nature creates ozone, which purifies the air, by electrical discharges or by lightning. In other words, ozone is created by electrical energy in air space. Now, technology has created ozone generators.

    Why use Ozone?

    Ozone actually purifies the air through the process of oxidation. Ozone is a form of oxygen which has been electrically energized. The energy makes ozone more chemically active than oxygen. Most odoriferous substances ( indoor air pollutants) are unsaturated which means their molecular structure is not closed and will readily breakdown with oxygen. Ozone actually breaks down odor-causing molecules such as hydrocarbons (HC) into water vapor (H20). An ozone generator does not mask odors with perfume or chemicals. It oxidizes (changes the substance of) odor molecules.

    What are negative ions?

    Ions are electrically - charged particles, either positive or negative, generated by the natural radiation from the earth and the sun, and by waterspray and lightning. A negative ion is formed when as electron attaches itself to an oxygen molecule. Negative ions revitalize and freshen air. Fresh country air has a natural ion balance of 1,000 to 4,000 ions per cubic centimeter, with a ratio of 5 positive ions to 4 negative. Negative ions, like ozone, are also created as a result of nature's lightning storms and assist in purifying air.

    Why do we need negative ions?

    Ions are short-lived and thus need constant replenishing from nature. In our artificial environments, the ion balance is critically upset. Central heating and air conditioning systems cause negative ions to disappear from friction. Once air is inside an office or home with windows closed, it has little chance of being re-ionized. In cities where the ground is paved over and ionization from the earth cannot take place, this balance is greatly aggravated.

    Article from USA TODAY

    The EPA states that you're more likely to get sick from pollution in your home or office than from pollution outdoors. "Everyone is exposed to some form of indoor air pollution. We believe indoor pollution is a serious problem"

    The EPA studied 10 office buildings, schools and nursing homes for five years. At least 500 harmful chemicals turned up in each of the four buildings. Main sources: fumes from room dividers, telephone cables, paint and carpeting.

    Formaldehyde

    Formaldehyde gas can provoke asthma attacks and cause memory loss, depression and gynecological problems. The EPA lists formaldehyde as a human carcinogen. It is used as a bonding agent in thousands of products: car bodies, counter tops, deodorants, electronic equipment, particleboard, plywood and fiberboard are even bigger sources. Problems arise when formaldehyde seeps from furniture, carpeting and other products, especially when they are new.

    Organic Gases

    Organic volatile gases are found in many household products, including dry cleaned clothing, paints, solvents (cleaners and degreasers), wood preservatives, aerosol sprays, air fresheners, stored fuels, hobby supplies, disinfectants, repellents and automotive products. One example, methylene chloride, which can cause cancer in animals, is widely used in paint removers and as a propellant in aerosol spray paint. One half billion pounds go into consumer products annually.

    Molds

    Such biological pollutants as mold, pollen, dust mites and dander affect 25 million people, contributing to asthma, hay fever and headaches. Air conditioners and humidifiers provide the condition in which they breed.

    Asbestos

    Asbestos was used in ceilings from 1945 to 1975, as an insulation on hot water and steam pipes from 1920 to 1972 and as wall and ceiling insulation from 1930 to 1950. When loose asbestos fibers are inhaled they can cause cancer.

    Gas, Wood & Coal

    These fuels and kerosene stoves emit carbon monoxide and nitrogen which can cause breathing problems. High levels of CO can cause headaches, dizziness and nausea.

    Additional links:

    > Work Place - There are countless environments where specific or non-specific pollution may occur and it is next to impossible to evaluate all possibilities and suggest one or other of our mask. Click to read more.
    > Fire Services - The Health and Safety at Work (1974) Act and the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations specify that companies have a legal responsibility to provide appropriate protection, for their employees, against identified hazards. Click to read more.
    > Urban Environment - Working in the urban environment subjects its occupants to almost the same levels of pollution as a cyclist. Anybody, working for continuous or consistent periods of time in the urban environment where high levels of pollution occur, should use respiratory protection. Click to read more.
    > Home Environment - If you are concerned about chemical agents being present when working at home, then it is always best to find information on the packaging of any product that should state the chemical agent's nature (poisonous or caustic or other) and what type of protection is required if appropriate. Click to read more.

  • Sports & Leisure :
    In recent years the sports and leisure industry has seen a major increase in the use of technological fabrics that have given significant protection to the end user.
    This increase in the use of modern fibres together with European legislation in particular, the PPE Directive, (Personal Protective Equipment) has seen improvements in the safety aspects of many sports activities with positive results being achieved in the ever competitive and commercial world of sport. Respiratory protection is seriously being considered and now being used in many sports activities.

    Hey! if the lungs don't function properly you ain't gonna win and second is nowhere.

    Respro® masks cover a wide range of sports activities from extreme cold conditions to hot dusty conditions and many in between. The X-treme™ mask and the Bandit™ scarf have gone up Mount Everest and the Sportsta™ mask been on the Paris Dakar; and stood the test.

    As the 'sports' in leisure is increasing, so are the number of people who have exercise induced asthma. This condition is brought on by exercise which triggers an asthma attack or at best induces breathlessness. It is well known that many sports are carried are carried out in enviromnments where pollen, grass spores and other particulates are present (particularly debilitating is an allergic reaction to animal dander as in horse riding). All these particulates can effect an individual who may have a sensitive respiratory system and subsequently reduce performance levels or bar them from enjoying the activity altogether.

    The most effective filter for sports use is the Sportsta™ filter as this is made up of electrostatically charged fibres which increases the filters ability to remove particulate material whilst at the same time allowing a free flow of air into the mask. Another major consideration is the use of exhalation valves that get rid of water vapour when breathing out. The Powa™ valves on the Sportsta™ mask are excellent for 'dumping' out water vapour leaving the interior space of the mask relatively dry.

    Additional links:

    > Street / Cycling - MTB, BMX, Agressive, and Boarding are all popular city leisure activities. They all have an element of fashion which is great and Respro® masks fit well in these sports, not only as functional accessories but also as a technical fashion accessory to go with all the other bits of kit worn and used. The difference a Respro® mask makes, is that it will stop you inhaling pollution and also make a protest statement about the pollution problems that exist in the urban environment that we all have to endure.
    > Road Racing / Touring - Equipment is absolutely essential for both of these activities. The right product solves the problem and makes it easier, the wrong product makes the problem worse because you've wasted your money. Get the right product and you'll tell your mates for the right reasons, get the wrong one and you'll never let anybody forget. We like motorcycling at Respro and hate it when something goes wrong with a piece of equipment or that item you bought off the shelf just didn't cut the mustard! Click to read more.
    > Running / Walking - The minority of us run/walk for exercise to keep our minds and bodies fit, the majority of us run to catch a bus or train because we are late and can't get things together. Click to read more.
    > Wintersports - Winter conditions create adverse effects in the respiratory system. Cold air passing into the lungs constricts blood vessels and capillaries at the time when you need them to function most efficiently. This will restrict lung function and its capacity to transfer oxygen to the blood. This in turn will reduce the bodies reflex times and the brains reaction times in order to carry out the tasks required. Click to read more.

  • Urban Commuting :
    It may seem obvious, but road traffic is the main source of air pollution. It is also exacerbated by weather conditions and locality.
    Air pollution consists of many chemicals which are the by-products of engine combustion. Some are present as gases, while others are solid, suspended in the air as particles. The contributing substances may appear in the air in different amounts, in various combinations and often interact with each other. There is no constant in pollution which only serves to increase the risk and make it harder for scientists to evaluate its effects.

    Additional links:

    > Cycling - As a form of transport, it is probably one of the quickest ways of getting from A to B in the city. It is also an excellent way of maintaining cardio-vascular fitness. It is an expedient form of transportation and running costs are negligible compared to cars, buses and taxis. However, one should be mindful of the air quality in cities with large commuter populations. Click to read more.
    > Motorcycling - Its fast, its fun, it represents freedom, it is the ultimate in two wheel travel, some people would say! Motorcycling is a high risk sport where potentially dangerous situations exist. Motorcycling is beyond the human scale. Forces created are equally beyond the human scale and can readily chew you up. Click to read more.
    > Walking - Walking in the street, walking in the subway, walking in the country - if you think pollution doesn't affect you, then you are wrong. Click to read more.
    > Pollution / Toxicology - What is Air pollution? Most air pollution consists of many different chemicals. Some are present as gases, while others are solid, suspended in the air as particultes. Contributing substances may appear in the air in different amounts, in varying combinations and often interact with each other. There is no constant in air pollution which only serves to increase the risk and make it harder for scientists to evaluate its effects. Click to read more.

  • Allergy Relief :
    The increase in 'comfort spending' over the last few decades in the form of double glazing, carpets, chimney blocking, centrally heated homes etc, has consequentially produced an increase in the number of people suffering from asthma and allergy related disorders from the air that they breathe.
    This is primarily due to indoor air pollution. This change in home lifestyle has also contributed to the accumulation of chemical residues inside the home from gas cookers, perfumes, cigarette smoke, cleaning agents and chemicals from the construction process of most modern work surfaces and cupboard paneling. One of the main allergen triggers found in the domestic environment is the common dust mite, other known triggers are animal dander, pollen, mould spores, mildew, bacteria, chemical detergents and cleaners, and cigarette smoke, even changes in temperature and humidity.

    Particulates are present in the air no matter what you do. They tend to increase in concentration if work is carried out in a closed environment. The breathing rate is also increased along with most physical activities, so it is important to wear some level of protection to maintain a good sense of well being.

    High concentrations of particulates may be present when carrying out the following activities:

    • Hoovering
    • Dusting
    • Baking
    • Garden spraying
    • Smoking
    • DIY
    High concentrations of chemicals may be present when carrying out the following activities:
    • Cleaning around the home
    • Paintwork
    • Car work
    • Garden work
    High levels of chemicals and particulates can be found in the following residential environments:
    • Living / Bed / Kitchen rooms
    • Workshop
    • Garden
    • Kitchen
    • Attic
    If you are in doubt as to the nature of a chemical agent or possible particulate threat and feel the need to wear a mask, then it would be sensible to acquire a product with a sub-micron particulate layer and a DACC layer.

    Additional links:

    > Hayfever - The increase in 'comfort spending' over the last few decades in the form of double glazing, carpets, chimney blocking, centrally heated homes etc, has consequentially produced an increase in the number of people suffering from asthma and allergy related disorders from the air that they breathe. Click to read more.
    > Multiple Chemical Sensitivity - Like with the case of dustmites, it is the 'sealing' from the modernisation process that has contributed to the increase in the levels of chemical residues originating from cookers, cleaning agents, airfeshners, fabric conditioners and cigarette smoke. Couple this with the chemicals from man made materials and poor ventilation and it can be understood why cases of asthma have doubled in the last ten years. Click to read more.
    > Rhinitis - Rhinitis as a condition can be viral, infectious, allergic and non allergic. Perrenial rhinitis is a condition that is similar to hay fever but affects the body with different particulates. Click to read more.

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